Sunday, June 21, 2009

Causes of Death ေသဆံုးရသည့္ေရာဂါမ်ား

Causes of Death ေသဆံုးရသည့္ေရာဂါမ်ား
ေသဆံုးရသည့္အေၾကာင္းမ်ား ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္း
ကူးစက္ေရာဂါမ်ားေၾကာင့္ ေသဆံုးရသူအားလံုး ၂၅.၉ %
Non-communicable conditions ကူးစက္ေရာဂါမဟုတ္သည့္ အျခားေရာဂါမ်ား ၅၈. ၈ %
Injuries ထိခိုက္ဒဏ္ရာမ်ား ၉.၂ %
Maternal and Perinatal conditions ေမြးဖြားျခင္းႏွင့္ပတ္သက္ေသာ ေရာဂါမ်ား ၅.၂ %
Nutritional deficiencies အာဟာရခ်ဳိ႕တဲ့ေရာဂါမ်ား ဝ.၉ %
Grand total စုစုေပါင္း ၁ဝဝ %

Immunization Chart ကာကြယ္ေဆးထိုးဇယား

Immunization Chart ကာကြယ္ေဆးထိုးဇယား၊ (ကာကြယ္ေဆးအလိုက္)
ကာကြယ္ေဆးအမည္ အၾကိမ္ ကေလးအသက္
1. BCG ဘီစီဂ်ီ - ေမြးကာစ
2. DPT ဒီပီတီ (ဆံုဆို႔-ၾကက္ညွာ-ေမးခိုင္) 1 ၆ ပါတ္ ၁ လခြဲ
- 2 ၁၀ ပါတ္ ၂ လခြဲ
- 3 ၁၄ ပါတ္ ၃ လခြဲ
Booster ဒီပီတီ (ဆံုဆို႔-ၾကက္ညွာ-ေမးခိုင္) ထပ္ထိုး 1 ၁၈ လ ၄ လခြဲ
Booster ဒီပီတီ (ဆံုဆို႔-ၾကက္ညွာ-ေမးခိုင္) ထပ္ထိုး ၄ ႏွစ္ခြဲ
3. Oral Polio ပိုလီယို ေမြးကာစ
- ၆ ပါတ္ ၁ လခြဲ
- ၁၀ ပါတ္ ၂ လခြဲ
- ၁၄ ပါတ္ ၃ လခြဲ
- ၁၈ ပါတ္ ၄ လခြဲ
Booster ပိုလီယို ထပ္ထိုး ၁၈ လ ၄ လခြဲ
- ၄ ႏွစ္ခြဲ
4. Measles ၀က္သက္ - ၉ လ
5. MMR အမ္အမ္အာရ္ - ၁၅ လ
6. Hepatitis အသဲေရာင္အသား၀ါ B 1 ေမြးကာစ
- 2 ၁ လ
- 3 ၆ လ
7. Hi B အသဲေရာင္ ဘီ 1 ေမြးကာစ
- ၂ လ
- ၄ လ
8. Typhoid တိုက္ဖြိဳက္ - ၂ ႏွစ္
9. Hep A အသဲေရာင္ ေအ 1 and 2 အခ်ိန္မေရြး
10. Help B Booster အသဲေရာင္ ဘီ ထပ္ထိုး - ၁၀ ႏွစ္
11. TT ေမးခိုင္ထပ္ထိုး - ၁၅-၁၆ ႏွစ္


Immunization Chart ကာကြယ္ေဆးထိုးဇယား၊ (အသက္အလိုက္)
Child Immunization Chart ကာကြယ္ေဆးထိုးဇယား၊ (အသက္အလိုက္)
ကေလးအသက္ ကာကြယ္ေဆးအမည္ အၾကိမ္
ေမြးကာစ BCG ဘီစီဂ်ီ တီဘီကာကြယ္ေဆး -
ေမြးကာစ OPV Oral Polio ပိုလီယို 1
ေမြးကာစ Hepatitis အသဲေရာင္အသား၀ါ B 1
ေမြးကာစ Hi B အသဲေရာင္ ဘီ 1
၄ ပါတ္ (၁ လ) Hi B အသဲေရာင္ ဘီ 2
၆ ပါတ္ (၁ လခြဲ) DPT ဒီပီတီ (ဆံုဆို႔-ၾကက္ညွာ-ေမးခိုင္) 1
၆ ပါတ္ (၁ လခြဲ) OPV Oral Polio ပိုလီယို 2
၈ ပါတ္ (၂ လ) Hi B အသဲေရာင္ ဘီ 2
၁၀ ပါတ္ (၂ လခြဲ) DPT ဒီပီတီ (ဆံုဆို႔-ၾကက္ညွာ-ေမးခိုင္) 2
၁၀ ပါတ္ (၂ လခြဲ) OPV Oral Polio ပိုလီယို 3
၁၄ ပါတ္ (၃ လခြဲ) DPT ဒီပီတီ (ဆံုဆို႔-ၾကက္ညွာ-ေမးခိုင္) 3
၁၄ ပါတ္ (၃ လခြဲ) OPV Oral Polio ပိုလီယို 4
၁၆ ပါတ္ (၄ လ) Hi B အသဲေရာင္ ဘီ 3
၁၈ ပါတ္ (၄ လခြဲ) OPV Oral Polio ပိုလီယို 5
၆ လ Hepatitis အသဲေရာင္အသား၀ါ 3
၉ လ Measles ၀က္သက္ -
၁၅ လ MMR အမ္-အမ္-အာရ္ -
၁၈ လ Booster ဒီပီတီ (ဆံုဆို႔-ၾကက္ညွာ-ေမးခိုင္) ထပ္ထိုး 1
၁၈ လ Booster OPV ပိုလီယို ထပ္ထိုး 1
၂ ႏွစ္ Typhoid တိုက္ဖြိဳက္ -
၄ ႏွစ္ခြဲ Booster ဒီပီတီ (ဆံုဆို႔-ၾကက္ညွာ-ေမးခိုင္) ထပ္ထိုး 2
၄ ႏွစ္ခြဲ Booster OPV ပိုလီယို ထပ္ထိုး 2
အခ်ိန္မေရြး Hep A အသဲေရာင္ ေအ 1 and 2
၁၀ ႏွစ္ Help B Booster အသဲေရာင္ ဘီ ထပ္ထိုး -
၁၅-၁၆ ႏွစ္ TT ေမးခိုင္ထပ္ထိုး -

ေဒါက္တာတင့္ေဆြ

Waterborne Diseases ေရကတဆင့္ကူးစက္သည့္ေရာဂါမ်ား

အစာကတဆင့္ ကူးစက္သည့္ ေရာဂါမ်ားအုပ္စုတြင္ ပါဝင္သည္။ ေရာဂါရေစသည့္ပိုးမႊားမ်ား၊ အဆိပ္အေတာက္မ်ား၊ လူႏွင့္မသင့္ေသာ ဓါတ္ပစၥည္းမ်ားပါဝင္ေနသည့္ မသန္႕ရွင္းေသာေရကို ေသာက္သံုးမိ၍ ရေစေသာကူးစက္ေရာဂါမ်ား ျဖစ္ၾကသည္။ ၄င္းပိုးမ်ားသည္ အစာကတဆင့္ ကူးစက္သည့္ေရာဂါမ်ား အမ်ားဆံုး ျဖစ္ေစသည့္ပိုးမ်ားႏွင့္ ကြဲျပားသည္။ ကူးစက္ေရာဂါမ်ား ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္ေရးဌာန၏ ၁၉၇၂-၂ဝဝဝ စာရင္းအရ ေအာက္ပါအတိုင္း ေတြ႕ႏိုင္ေပသည္။
ပိုးအမ်ိဳးအမည္ရာခိုင္ႏွဳန္း
Giardia lamblia 35.8%
Shigella spp. 11.4%
Hepatitis A 6.3%
Noroviruses 5.7%
Campylobacter jejuni 4.5%
Cryptosporidium 4.2%
Samonella, nontyphoidal 3.9%
Escherichia coli O157-H7 2.4%
Salmonella Typhi 1.3%
Vibrio cholerae 0.6%
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 0.3%
Yersinia enterocolitica 0.3%
Rotavirus 0.3%
Entamoeba histolytica 0.3%
Plesiomonas shigelloides 0.3%
Small round virus 0.3%
Miscellaneous chemicals 0.3%
Total 100%

Medicine for Diseases of Ear နားေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Diseases of Ear နားေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Earache နားကိုက္ျခင္း၊ Acute Otitis Media ရက္တိုနားျပည္ယိုျခင္း၊ Carbamazepine 100-300 mg TDS; Amoxacillin 250-500 mg TDS x 7 days or Erythromycin 50 mg/kg/day + Sulfonamide 150 mg/kg/day x 10 days or Cefaclor 20-40 mg/kg/day; or Augmentin (Amoxacillin + Clavulanic acid) 500 mg TDS or Cefuroxime 500 mg Orally BD or Cefpodoxime 200-400 mg daily or Doxycycline 100 mg BD or (TMP 160 mg+SMZ 800 mg) BD x 10 days
Chronic Otitis Media နာတာရွည္ နားျပည္ယိုျခင္း၊ Ciprofloxacin 500 mg BD x 1-6 week
Serous Otitis Media နားရည္ယိုျခင္း၊ Prednisolone 40 mg/day + Amoxacillin 250 mg TDS x 7 days

Medicine for Mental Disorders စိတ္ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Mental Disorders စိတ္ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Anxiety စိတ္ပူပန္ျခင္း၊ Alprazolam (Xanax) 0.5 mg (max. 4 mg); Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) 10-20 mg (Max 100 mg); Iazepam (Valium) 5-15 mg (Max 30 mg
Schizophrenia (စကစ္ဇိုဖရီးနီးယား) Chlorpromazine 100-400 mg (max 1 Gm)
Depression and Mania စိတ္က်-စိတ္စြဲ ေရာဂါ Amitriptyline 150-250 mg (max 300 mg); Mipramine (Tofranil) 150-200 mg (max 300 mg); Fluoxetine (Prozac) 5-40 mg (max 80 mg); Fluvoxamine (Luvox) 100-300 mg (max 300 mg); Nefzodone 300-600 mg (max 600 mg); Paroxetine 20-30 mg (max 50 mg); ertraline 50-150 mg (max 200 mg); Trazodone 100-300 mg (max 400 mg)
Sleep disorders, Insomnia အိပ္မရသည့္ေရာဂါ၊ Lorazepam 0.5 mg HS; Temazepam 7.5-15 mg HS; Zolpidem 5-10 mg HS, Zaleplon 5-10 mg HS; Dephenhydramine 25 mg HS; Trazodone 25-150 mg HS; Diazepam 5-20 mg HS
Enuresis အိပ္ရာထဲ ဆီးသြားျခင္း၊ Imipramine 50-100 mg HS
Aggression ၾကမ္းတမ္းစိတ္၊ Haloperidol 5-10 mg IM every hour (drug of choice); Diazepam 5 mg Orally or IV for mild to moderate cases

Medicine for Worms သံေကာင္ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Worms သံေကာင္ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Trichuiasis ဝမ္းပ်က္ျခင္း ျဖစ္ေစသည့္ သံေကာင္ Albendazole Adult > 2 years = 400 mg HS
Hookworm ခ်ိတ္ပံု သံေကာင္ Mebendazole 100 mg BD x 3 days or Albendazole 400 mg stat + Ferrous sulfate 200 mg TDS x 3 months
Ascariasis, Enterobiasis, Hookworm သံလံုးေကာင္ Albendazole 400 mg stat or for 2-3 days; Mebendazole 100 mg BD before or after meal x 3 days or 500 mg stat; Piperazine 3.5 Gm x 2-4 days; Livamisole 150 mg stat
Strongyloides အေရျပား မွတဆင့္ဝင္ေသာ သံေကာင္ Albendazole Adult 400 mg OD/BD x 3 days
Neurocysticercosis အာ႐ံုေၾကာထဲေရာက္ေသာ သံေကာင္ Albendazole 400 mg BD for Children 15 mg/kg BD x 8-30 days
Tapeworm (Cestode), Echinococcosis တိပ္ျပားပံု သံေကာင္ Praziquantel 10 mg/kg stat dose; Albendazole = Adults and children weighing 60 kilograms and over 400 (mg) BD PC x 28 days may need to be repeated in 14 days
Pinworm (Enterobiasis) ပင္အပ္ပံု သံေကာင္ Albendazole 400 mg stat; Mebendazole 100 mg BD before or after meal


Pinworm တုပ္ေကာင္ (သန္ေကာင္)
• Mebendazole (Vermox) ေဆးကို တၾကိမ္တည္းေပးတာနဲ႔ ရတာမ်ားတယ္။
• တခ်ိဳ႕ကို ၁ ပါတ္ေနတခါ၊ ဒါမွ မဟုတ္ ၂ ပါတ္ေနတခါ ထပ္ေပးရတယ္။ တၾကိမ္တည္းေပးျပီးေနာက္ ၃ ပါတ္ေနရင္ တခါထပ္ေပးသင့္တယ္။ ေနာက္ ၃ ပါတ္ေနရင္ရင္ တခါ၊ ေပါင္း ၃ ခါေပးရတယ္။
• Albendazole (Albenza) ကိုလဲ အဲလိုေပးသင့္တယ္။ ဒီေဆးက ေဘးထြက္ဆိုးက်ိဳးနဲနဲပိုတယ္။
• Pinworms သန္ေကာင္က ဆီးလမ္း၊ လိင္လမ္းကိုပါ ကူးစက္တာဆိုရင္ Mebendazole (Vermox) + Ivermectin (Stromectol) ေဆး ၂ မ်ိဳး တြဲေပးရမယ္။

Ivermectin (Stromectol) ေဆး
• အဓိက အေရျပားေအာက္ကေန ဝင္တဲ့ Strongyloidiasis (Threadworm) သန္ေကာင္အတြက္ သံုးတယ္။ အသဲနဲ႔ အူထဲအထိ ေရာက္တယ္။
• Onchocerciasis (River blindness) ေရာဂါအတြက္ကိုလည္း ေပးတယ္။ မ်က္စိကို ထိခိုက္ေစတဲ့ သန္ေကာင္ ျဖစ္တယ္။
• Onchocerciasis (River blindness) အတြက္ဆိုရင္ 3, 6, or 12 လစီျခား ေပးရမယ္။ လူၾကီး = 150 mcg/kg တၾကိမ္ေပးပါ။ ေနာက္ ၃-၁၂ လမွာထပ္ေပးပါ။
• Strongyloidiasis (Threadworm) အတြက္ေပးရင္ Stool exam ဝမ္းစစ္တာကို ၃ ခါ လုပ္သင့္တယ္။ မေတြ႔မွ ကင္းရွင္းျပီလို႔ ေျပာႏိုင္တယ္။ လူၾကီး = 200 mcg/kg
• Roundworm သန္လံုးေကာင္၊ Lice သန္း၊ နဲ႔ Scabies ဝဲ-ယားနာေတြအတြက္လည္း သံုးႏိုင္တယ္။
• ဒီေဆးကို အစာမရွိခ်ိန္မွာ ေပးတာေကာင္းတယ္။
• ေဘးထြက္-ဆိုးက်ိဳး = ေခါင္းကိုက္၊ ေခါင္းမူး၊ ၾကြက္သားနာ၊ ပ်ိဳ႕၊ ဝမ္းပ်က္။

Medicine for Diseases of Skin အေရျပားေပၚျဖစ္သည့္ ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Diseases of Skin အေရျပားေပၚျဖစ္သည့္ ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Herpes zoster (Shingles) ကိုယ္ေပၚေရယံု၊ Acyclovir, Valacyclovir or Famciclovir; If the pain is severe — particularly if you develop pos-therapeutic neuralgia — painkillers. Sometimes Tricyclic antidepressants or certain anticonvulsants are helpful. A topical ointment called Capsaicin or a skin patch that contains the pain-relieving medication Lidocaine may be soothing as well
Herpes labialis; Genital Herpes ပါးစပ္-လိင္လမ္းတို႔၌ျဖစ္ေသာေရယံု၊ Valacylovir 1 Gm BD or Famciclovir 250 mg TDS + 5% Acyclovir ointment
Nail fungus (onychomycosis) လက္သဲ-ေျခသဲမႈိပိုးဝင္ျခင္း၊ Itraconazole, Fluconazole, Terbinafine; Other treatment options Antifungal lacquer; Topical medications = Econazole nitrate
Seborrheic dermatitis အေရျပားစို၍ေရာင္သည့္ေရာဂါ၊ Hydrocortisone acetate
Ringworm of the body ေပြး၊ Topical Econazole, Miconazole; Oral Itraconazole, Fluconazole, Terbinafine, Ketoconazole, Grisofulvin
Anthrax ေဒါင့္သန္းေရာဂါ၊ Ciprofloxacin 500 mg BD Orally or 400 mg BD IV; Doxycycline 100 mg BD IV or Orally; Amoxacillin 500 mg TDS; Penicillin G 2 million units 4 hourly IV
Gas Gangrene ပုတ္ပြ-နံသည့္အနာ Penicillin 2 Million units every 3 hours IV or Tetracycline, Clindamycin, Metronidazole, Chloramphenicol, Cefoxition
Animal and Human bites wounds တိရိစာၦန္-လူကိုက္သည့္အနာမ်ား၊ For prophylaxis Dicloxacillin 500 mg Orally QID x 3-5 days or Penicillin V 500 mg Orally QID x 3-5 days Treatment: Penicillin or Tetracycline or Fluoroquinolones, Azithromycin and Clarithromycin x 2-3 weeks
Tinea versicolor ညွင္း Clotrimazole (Lotrimin, Mycelex) and Miconazole (Lotrimin) BD x 10-14 days; Selenium sulfide shampoo 1% (Selsun Blue) or 1% ketoconazole shampoo (Nizoral) for 15 minutes twice a week for 2-4 weeks

Medicine for Diseases of Joint အဆစ္ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Diseases of Joint အဆစ္ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Arthritis (Gonoccal) အဆစ္ေရာင္ေရာဂါ (ဂိုႏိုေကာ့ကယ္)ပိုး၊ Ceftiriaxone 1 Gm IV OD or Cefotaxime 1 Gm IV TDS or Spectinomycin 2 Gm IM BD x 24-48 hours and followed by Orally Cefixime 400 mg BD or Ciprofloxacin 500 mg BD Orally x 7-10 days
Trauma, Rheumatic, TB, Pyogenic, Gout, etc. ထိခိုက္မိ-တီဘီ-ေဂါက္-ျပည္တည္ အဆစ္နာျခင္း အမ်ဴိးမ်ဳိး၊ Aspirin 10-15 mg/kg QID; Celebrex 100 mg BD, Diclofenac 50-75 mg BD/TDS, Ibuprofen 400-800 mg QID, Indomethacin 25-50 mg BD/QID, Mefenamic acid 250 mg QID
Septic Arthritis အဆစ္ပိုးဝင္ျခင္း၊ Ceftriaxone 1-2 Gm IV OD
TB Bones and Joints အ႐ိုး-အဆစ္ တီဘီ၊ INH 300 mg/day for 6 months + Rifampin 600 mg/day for 6 months + Pyrazinamide 25 mg/kg/day for 2 months ± Ethambutol 15 mg/kg/day

Medicine for Chronic Diseases နာတာရွည္ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Chronic Diseases နာတာရွည္ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Leprosy (လက္ပ႐ိုစီ) အနာႀကီးေရာဂါ၊ Dapsone 50-100 mg/dose, Clofazimine 50 mg/dose + Rifampin 600 mg/dose x 2-3 years
TB တီဘီ၊ INH 300 mg/dose; Rifampin 600 mg/dose; Pyrazinamide 2 Gm/dose; Ethanbutol 2.5 Gm/dose; Streptomycin 1 Gm/dose; PAS = Aminosalicylic acid 8-12 Gm/dose; Ethionamide 15-20 mg/kg (Max. 1 Gm); Cycloserine 15-20 mg/kg (Max. 1 Gm)
Typhoid (Enteric Fever) အူေရာင္-ငန္းဖ်ား ေခၚ တုိက္ဖြဳိက္ Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, Ciprofloxacin 750 mg BD, Ceftriaxone 2 Gm OD
Plague ပလိပ္ေရာဂါ Streptomycin 1 Gm BD IM
Filariasis ဆင္ေျခေထာက္ေရာဂါ၊ Ivermectin 200 μg/kg stat and repeat after 6 months
Albendazole 400 mg stat plus Ivermectin 200 μg/kg
Albendazole 400 mg BD x 3 weeks

Medicine for Diseases of Urinary Tract ဆီးလမ္းေၾကာင္းေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Diseases of Urinary Tract ဆီးလမ္းေၾကာင္းေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Urethritis and Cervicitis caused by Chlamydia (ကလာမိုင္ဒီယား)ေၾကာင့္ျဖစ္ေသာ သားအိမ္အဝ-ဆီးျပြန္အဝေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Erythromycin 250-500 mg QID, Doxycycline 100 mg BD or Azithromycin 500 mg OD
Acute Pylonephritis ေက်ာက္ကပ္ျပြန္ ရက္တိုေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Ciprofloxacin 400 mg IV BD or 750 mg BD Orally or Levofloxacin 500 mg IV OD or Ampicillin 1 Gm QID and Gentamycin 1 mg/kg TDS IV x 21 days
Ciprofloxacin 500-750 mg BD Orally x 21 days or Ofloxacin 200-300-400 mg BD Orally x 21 days or Trimethoprim-Sulpfamethoxazole 160/800 mg BD x 21 days
Acute Cystitis and Acute Prostatitis ရက္တို ဆီးလမ္း၊ ဆီးအိမ္ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ က်ား-ဆီးႀကိတ္ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Cephalexin 250-500 mg QID Orally x 1-3 days; Ciprofloxacin 250-500 mg BD x 1-3 days; Nitrofurantoin 100 mg BD-QID PC x 7 days; Ofloxacin 200 mg BD x 1-3 days; Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 160/800 mg stat
Chronic Prostatitis နာတာရွည္ ဆီးလမ္း၊ က်ား-ဆီးႀကိတ္ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Ciprofloxacin 250-500 mg BD Orally x 1-3 months; Ofloxacin 200-400 mg BD Orally x 1-3 months; Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 160/800 mg BD x 1-3 months
Urethritis ဆီးလမ္းျပြန္အဝ ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Cefixime 400 mg Orally once; Ciprofloxacin 500 mg Orally once; Ceftriaxone 250 mg IM once
Acute Interstitial Nephritis (Due to drugs such as Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Sulfonamides, NSAIDs, Rifampin, Phenytoin, Allopurinol and Infections ေဆးမ်ားေၾကာင့္ ေက်ာက္ကပ္ေရာင္ျခင္းမ်ား၊ Methylprednisolone 0.5-1 Gm/day x 1-4 days or Prednisolone 60 mg/day x 1-2 weeks; Acute Glomerulonephritis (Hypertension, Edema, urinary RBC and Albumin) = High-dose Steroids

Medicine for Diseases of Eye မ်က္စိေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Diseases of Eye မ်က္စိေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Hordeolum (Sty) မ်က္စိစြန္ျခင္း၊ I&D + Erythromycin or Bacitracin ointment every 3 hours ခဲြစိတ္ရန္၊
Blepharitis မ်က္ခံြေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Tetracycline 250 mg BD, Doxycycline 100 mg daily, Erythromycin 250 mg TDS + Prednisolone 0.125% BD
Dacrycystitis မ်က္ရည္လမ္းေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Ciprofloxacin 0.3% Eye ointment; Antibiotics + Surgery ခြဲစိတ္ရန္၊
Allergic Eye diseases အလာဂ်ီေၾကာင့္ မ်က္စိနာျခင္း၊ Antihistamine + Corticosteroid
Bacterial Keratitis မ်က္စိအၾကည္လႊာေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Cefazolin 100 mg/ml and Tobamycin 15 mg/ml, Ciprofloxacin 3 mg/ml, Ofloxacin 3 mg/ml
Gonococcal Corneal ulcer ဂႏိုပိုးေၾကာင့္ မ်က္ၾကည္လႊာေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Ceftriaxone 1-2 Gm IM x 5 days + Erythromycin or Bacitracin E/o
Herpes Simplex Keratitis ေရယံုပိုးေၾကာင့္ မ်က္စိနာျခင္း၊ Acyclovir 200-400 mg 5 times a day Orally ေကာ္တီဇုန္းမေပးရ၊
Acute Angle-closure Glaucoma (extreme pain and blurred vision + nausea) မ်က္စိေရတိမ္၊ Acetazolamide 500 mg IV followed by 250 mg QID Orally; 4% Pilocarpine Eye drop 1 drop every 15 minutes x 1 hour and QID; Open-angle Glaucoma (No symptom but increase intraocular pressure) = Timolol 0.25-0.5% or Carteolol 1% or Levobunol 0.5% or Metipranolol 0.3% BD
Gonococcal Conjunctivitis ဂႏုိးပိုးေၾကာင့္မ်က္စိနာျခင္း၊ Ceftriaxone 1 Gm IM + Erythromycin or Bacitracin E/o; Chalamydial (Trachoma) = Tetracycline/Erythromycin 250 mg QID Orally or Doxycycline 100 mg BD x 3-5 weeks or Azythromycin 20 mg/kg stat + Surgery for Entropion မ်က္ေတာင္ေမႊးစိုက္ျခင္းအတြက္ခြဲစိတ္ရန္၊
Viral Conjunctivitis ဗိုင္းရပ္စ္ေၾကာင့္ မ်က္စိနာျခင္း၊ Sulfonamide + Prednisolone 0.125% QID

Medicine for Diseases of Liver အသဲေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Diseases of Liver အသဲေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Pyogenic Hepatic Abscess အသဲျပည္တည္နာ၊ 3rd generation Cephalosporin and Metronidazole
Hepatitis A အသဲေရာင္ ေအ ပိုး၊ Immune Globulin 0.02 mL/kg IM, Vaccine
Hepatitis B အသဲေရာင္ ဘီ ပိုး၊ Immune Globulin (HBIG) 0.016 mL/kg, vaccine
Alcoholic Hepatitis အရက္ေၾကာင့္ အသဲေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Good Nutrition, vitamin supplement (40 kcal/kg with 1.5-2 G/kg as protein + Folic acid and B 1), Methylprednisolone 32 mg/day x 1 month
Cirrhosis Liver အသဲေျခာက္ေရာဂါ၊ Nutrition (Adequate calories and protein (75-100 G/day) + Ascies treatment (Protein 60-80 G/day only + Low sodium intake + Spironolactone 100 mg daily every 3-5 days/Frurosemide 40-160 mg/day + Large volume paracentesis (4-6 L/day) + Surgery
Amebic Liver abscess အမီးဘားပိုးေၾကာင့္ အသဲေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Metronidazole [750 mg TDS x 10 days] or Tinidazole [800 mg TDS x 3-5 days] plus Diloxanide furoate [500 mg TDS PC x 21 days] or Idoquinol [650 mg TDS x 21 days] followed by Chloroquine [500 mg daily x 14 days]

Medicine for Diseases of Women အမ်ိဳးသမီးေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Diseases of Women အမ်ိဳးသမီးေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား And
Disease/Illness Treatment
Breast abscess/Puerperal Mastitis ရင္သားေရာင္ျခင္း၊၊ ရင္သားျပည္တည္ျခင္း၊ Cloxacillin, Dicloxacilin, Oxacillin 250 mg QID x 7-10 days or Cephalosporin 500 mg QID x 5-7 days + Surgery
ရာသီဆင္းခ်ိန္နာျခင္း၊ Dysmenorrhea NSAID (Ibuprofen 400-800 mg QID, Mefenamic acid 250-500 mg TDS/QID) ± Oral contraceptives
Premenstrual Tension ရာသီမဆင္းမီ ခံစားရသည့္ လကၡဏာမ်ား High carbohydrate/sugar, no alcohol, low caffeine diet + Vitamin B6 100 mg/day +Exercise + Fluoxetine 20 mg/day

Medicine for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) လိင္မွတဆင့္ ကူးစက္သည့္ ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) လိင္မွတဆင့္ ကူးစက္သည့္ ေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
Gonococcal Cervicitis, Urethritis, Pharyngitis ဂႏုိရီးယားေၾကာင့္ျဖစ္ေသာ ဆီးျပြန္အဝေရာင္ျခင္း၊ သားအိမ္အဝေရာင္ျခင္း၊ အာေခါင္ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Ciprofloxacin 500 mg stat or Ofloxacin 400 mg stat
Uncomplicated Gonorrhea သာမန္ဂႏိုေရာဂါ၊ Ceftriaxone 125 mg IM stat or Cefixime 400 mg Orally stat or Ciprofloxacin 500 mg stat or Ofloxacin 400 mg stat or Levofloxacin 250 mg or for Penicillin Allergic patients = Spetinomycin 1 Gm IM stat (or) Cefpodoxime 400 mg, (or) Levofloxacin 250 mg daily
Complicated Gonorrhea ရႈတ္ေထြးေသာ ဂႏိုေရာဂါ၊ Penicillin G 10 million units IV daily x 5 days; Ceftriaxone 1 Gm IV daily x 5 days; Ciprofloxacin 500 mg BD or Levofloxacin 500 mg OD x 5 days; Endocarditis = Ceftriaxone 1 Gm BD IV x 3 weeks
Primary Syphilis ပဌမဆင့္ ဆစ္ဖလစ္ Benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units IM once or for nonpregnant Penicillin Allergic patient Doxycycline 100 mg BD x 2 weeks or Tetracycline 500 mg QID x 2 weeks or Erythromycin 500 mg QID x 2 weeks
Benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units IM once a week x 3 weeks; Procaine penicillin G 2-4 million units IM 10-14 days
Secondary Syphilis (Skin, Mucosal lesions; Memnigitis) ဒုတိယဆင့္ ဆစ္ဖလစ္၊ အေရျပား-ဦးေႏွာက္ေျမွး၊ Benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units IM once or Doxycycline for non-pregnant Penicillin Allergic patient 100 mg BD x 2 weeks or Tetracycline 500 mg QID x 2 weeks or Erythromycin 500 mg QID x 2 weeks
Tertiary Syphilis (Skin, Mucous Membranes, Eyes, Skeltal, Respiratory, GI, Cardiovascular) တတိယဆင့္ ဆစ္ဖလစ္၊ အေရျပား-ဦးေႏွာက္ေျမွး၊ မ်က္စိ၊ အရိုး၊ အသက္ရွဴလမ္း၊ အစာလမ္း၊ ေသြးလွည့္လမ္း၊ Benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units IM once or for non-pregnant Penicillin Allergic patient Doxycycline 100 mg BD x 2 weeks or more or Tetracycline 500 mg QID x 2 weeks or more or Erythromycin 500 mg QID x 2 weeks or more
Neurosyphilis ဦးေႏွာက္-အာရုံေၾကာဆစ္ဖလစ္ Benzathine Penicillin 2.4 million units weekly x 3 weeks or Crystalline Penicillin G 3-4 million units IV 4 hourly x 10-14 days or Procaine Penicillin 2.4 million units IM OD + Probenacid 500 mg QID x 10-14 days (or) Chloramphenicol 2 Gm daily x 30 days, Doxycycline 200 mg BD x 21 days and Ceftriaxone 1 Gm daily x 14 days
Prostatitis က်ားဆီးႀကိတ္ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Ceftriaxone 250 mg IV single dose + Doxycycline 100 mg Orally BD x 10 days
Chlamydia (ကလင္မ္မိုင္ဒီးယာ) Azithromycin 1 Gm Orally (or) Doxycycline 100 mg BD Orally x 7 days (or) Ofloxacin 300 mg BD x 7 days
Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) (လင္ဖိုဂရင္ႏူလိုမား) Doxycycline 100 mg twice per day by mouth for 21 days
Genital Herpes လိင္လမ္းေရယံု၊ First Episode ျဖစ္ခါစ၊ Recurrent Infection ျပန္ျဖစ္ျခင္း၊ Acyclovir 400mg three times/day or 200mg five times/day x 7-10 days; Acyclovir 400mg three times/day or 800mg three/day for 2 days x 3-5 days
Chancroid ရွန္ကာရြိဳက္ေရာဂါ၊ Azithromycin 1 Gm stat or a single injection of Ceftriaxone (or) Ciprofloxacin 500 mg BD Orally x 3 days, or Erythromycin, 500 mg QID Orally x 7 days
Gonococcal pharyngitis ဂႏိုေၾကာင့္ အာေခါင္ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Ceftriaxone 125 Gm IM, Ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally, and Ofloxacin 400 mg orally
Systemic gonorrheal infections involving the skin and/or joints အ႐ိုး-အဆစ္-အေရျပား ဂႏိုပိုးဝင္ျခင္း၊ Ceftriaxone 1 Gm IM/IV every 24 hours, or Cefotaxime or Ceftizoxime 1 Gm IV TDS (or) Ciprofloxacin 500 mg BD or Orofloxacin 400 mg OD x 14 days, along with the treatment for Chlamydia. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Hepatitis B = Hepatitis C; Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8)

Medicine for Diseases of Digestive Tract အစာလမ္း ေလနာေရာဂါအမ်ဴိးမ်ဳိးေဆးမ်ား

Medicine for Diseases of Digestive Tract အစာလမ္း ေလနာေရာဂါအမ်ဴိးမ်ဳိးေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
A type of bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes many ulcers အစာလမ္းေလနာေရာဂါ၊ Treatment to get rid of H. pylori usually takes about 2 to 3 weeks ; Antacids = Aluminium Hydroxide and Oxide 250-1500 mg TDS; Bismuth Salts 530 mg QID; Calcium Carbonate 1250-1500; Magnesium Oxides and Hydroxides 200-400 mg TDS; H2 blockers = Ranitidine 150 mg TDS Oral/IV/IM; Cimetidine (HCl) 400 mg BD Oral; Proton Pump Inhibitor = Omeprazole; Amisulpride 0.714-4.285 mg/kg Daily Oral; Atropine (Sulphate) 0.5 to 1.0 mg IV/IM; Diclofenac (Na) 75 mg deep IM or 25-75 mg BD Oral
Duodenal ulcer အစာလမ္း အူသိမ္၏အစပိုင္းရွိ ေလနာေရာဂါ၊ Bismuth Salts 530 mg QID; Cimetidine (HCl) 400 mg BD Oral; Famotidine 20-40 mg Oral; Lansoprazole 15-30 mg Daily Oral; Nizatidine 150 mg OD or BD; Omeprazole 20-40 mg Daily Oral; Pirenzepine (di HCl) 0.238-0.714 mg/kg TDS; Propantheline (Br) 15 mg TDS; Ranitidine 150 mg TDS Oral/IV/IM
Esophagitis, Heartburn, Gastroesophageal Reflux အစာလမ္း အစာၿမိဳျပြန္ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ ရင္ပတ္ပူျခင္း။ အစာေျခရည္အထက္ တက္ျခင္း။ Mild cases = Antacids, Cemetidine 200-400 mg, Ranitidine and Nizatidine 75-150 mg, Famotidine 10-20 mg; Moderate cases = Ranitidine and Nizatidine 150 mg, Famotidine 20 mg or Cemetidine 400-800 mg BD; Omeprazole or Rabeprazole 20 mg, Lansoprazole 40 mg OD; Severe cases = Omeprazole or Rabeprazole 20 mg, Lansoprazole 30 mg OD, Pantoprazole or Esomeprazole 40 mg OD or BD
Stress Gastritis အစာလမ္း-အစာအိမ္ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ စိတ္-အလုပ္ ရႈပ္၍ ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ Cimetidine 900-1200 mg, Ranitidine 150 mg or Famotidine 20 mg infusion
Active ulcers and NSAID Gastric/Duodenal Ulcers အကိုက္ေပ်ာက္ေဆးမ်ားေၾကာင့္ ျဖစ္ေသာ အစာအိမ္ေလနာ၊ ရုတ္တရက္ျဖစ္သည့္ ေလနာ၊ (1) Omeprazole 20 mg or Rabeparzole 20 mg, Lansoprazole 15-30 mg, Pantoprazole 40 mg 30 minutes before meals BD; Clarithromycin 500 mg BD
Amoxacillin 1 Gm BD or Metronidazole 500 mg BD (2) Omeprazole 20 mg, Rabeparzole 20 mg, Lansoprazole 30 mg, Pantoprazole 40 mg 30 minutes before meals; Bismuth subsalicylate 2 QID (3) Trtracycline 500 mg QID/Metronidazole 250 mg QID
Ranidine Bismuth citrate 400 mg BD; Claithromycin 500 mg BD (4) Amoxacillin 1 Gm/Tretracycline 500 mg/Metronidazole 500 mg BD; After 10-14 days course of above; Omeprazole 20 mg or Rabeparzole 20 mg, Lansoprazole 15-30 mg, Pantoprazole 40 mg 30 minutes before meals OD (or) Ranitidine and Nizatidine 300 mg, Famotidine 40 mg and Cimetidine 800 mg HS x 4-8 weeks

Medicines for Bacteria ပိုးအုပ္စု၊ ပိုးအမ်ိဳးအစား၊ ေဆးမ်ား

ဗက္တီးရီးယားမ်ားကို အမ်ဳိးအစားခဲြရန္၊ (ဂရမ္)ဆိုးေဆးဆိုးၿပီး မိုက္ခ႐ိုစကုပ္ႏွင့္ ၾကည့္လွ်င္ မတူေသာ အေရာင္မ်ားကို ျမင္ရသည္၊ (ဂရမ္-နက္ေဂးတစ္ဖ္)ႏွင့္ (ဂရမ္-ေပါ့ေဇးတစ္ဖ္)ဟုရွိသည္။ ပံုသဏၭာန္လည္းမတူၾက၊ (ေရာ့တ္)သည္ အေခ်ာင္းသဏၭာန္ရွိ၍ (ေကာ့ကိုင္း)သည္ အလံုးအဝုိင္း ျဖစ္သည္။
Type of Bacteria ပိုးအုပ္စု၊ Name of Bacteria ပိုးအမ်ဳိးအစား Medicine ကုသရန္ေဆး၊
(ဂရမ္-နက္ေဂးတစ္ဖ္) (ေကာ့ကိုင္) ဂုိႏို-ေကာ့ကပ္စ္ Cefixime (200-400 mg Daily Oral),
Ciprofloxacin (100-200 mg BD IV or 250-750 mg BD Oral),
Ofloxacin (300-400 mg BD Oral or IV)
(ဂရမ္-နက္ေဂးတစ္ဖ္) (ေကာ့ကိုင္) (မနင္ဂို-ေကာ့ကပ္စ္) Penicillin (85.710 to 171.42 mg IV/IM Daily) (37.5 mg/kg IV/IM QID); Cefotaxime (1-2 Gm/dose BD IV/IM); Ampicillin (250-500 mg QID Oral or 500-1000 mg QID IV/IM); Chloramphenicol (500-1000 mg QID Oral/IV)
ဂရမ္-ေပါ့ေဇးတစ္ ေကာ့ကိုင္း စထြက္ပတို-ေကာ့ကပ္စ္၊ ႏူမိုေကာ့ကပ္စ္ Penicillin (85.710 to 171.42 mg IV/IM Daily) (37.5 mg/kg IV/IM QID)
ဂရမ္-ေပါ့ေဇးတစ္ ေကာ့ကိုင္း (စတက္ဖလို-ေကာ့ကပ္စ္) Gentamycin (1.5 mg/kag/dose BD/TDS Oral or 1-2.5 mg/kg/dose TDS IV/IM), Rifampin (15 mg/kg Oral), Penicillin (85.710 to 171.42 mg IV/IM Daily) (37.5 mg/kg IV/IM QID)
ဂရမ္-ေပါ့ေဇးတစ္ ေကာ့ကိုင္း (အင္တ႐ို-ေကာ့ကပ္စ္) Ampicillin (250-500 mg QID Oral or 500-1000 mg QID IV/IM), Gentamycin (1.5 mg/kg/dose BD/TDS Oral or 1-2.5 mg/kg/dose TDS IV/IM)
(ဂရမ္- နက္ေဂးတစ္ပ္) (ေရာ့တ္) (အီး၊ ကိုလိုင္)၊ (ဘ႐ူဆဲလား)၊ ဟီမိုဖဲလပ္စ္၊ ရွီဂဲလ္လား၊ Clindamycin (150-450 QID Oral or 300-600 mg QID IV/IM),
Metronidazole (400 mg TDS Oral), Tetracycline (250-500 mg QID Oral), Rifampin (15 mg/kg Oral), Erythromycin (250-500 mg QID Oral), Amoxicillin (0.5-1.0 G TDS Oral/IV/IM) (12.5 mg/kg TDS Oral), Ampicillin (250-500 mg QID Oral or 500-1000 mg QID IV/IM), Streptomycin (15 mg/kg IM)
(ဂရမ္-ေပါ့ေဇးတစ္ပ္) (ေရာ့တ္) ကေလာ္စ႐ိုက္ဒီယမ္၊ အင္းႆရက္စ္ပိုး၊ Penicillin (85.710 to 171.42 mg IV/IM Daily) (37.5 mg/kg IV/IM QID), Erythromycin (250-500 mg QID Oral), Ampicillin (250-500 mg QID Oral or 500-1000 mg QID IV/IM)
(အက္စစ္-ဖတ္စ္) (ေရာ့တ္) သို ့မဟုတ္ (ဗက္ဆလိုင္)၊ (တီဘီ)ပိုး၊ INH (300 mg OD Oral), Rifampin (15 mg/kg Oral), Pyrazinamide (20-30 mg/kg Daily Oral), Ethanbutol (15-25 mg/kg Daily Oral), Streptomycin (15 mg/kg IM)
စပိုင္႐ို-ခ်က္စ္ (ဆစ္ဖလစ္ပိုး) Penicillin (85.710 to 171.42 mg IV/IM Daily) (37.5 mg/kg IV/IM QID)

Medicine for Diseases of GI Tract
ဝမ္းႏွင့္ပတ္သက္ေသာေရာဂါေဆးမ်ား
Disease/Illness Treatment
ဝမ္းေလ်ာျခင္း၊ Diphenoxylate (Lomotil) 5 mg TDS for adult; For children 0.166 mg/kg TDS
ခရီးသြားဝမ္းေလ်ာျခင္း၊ Fluoroquinolones, e.g. Ciprofloxacin 500 mg Ofloxacin 400 mg Norfloxacin 400 mg BD; Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 160/800 mg BD; Erythromycin 250-500 mg QID; Metronidazole 250 mg TDS
Bacillary Dysentery, Diarrhea caused by E-coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Giardia, Traveler's diarrhea (ဗက္ဆလရီ) ဝမ္းကိုက္ေရာဂါ၊ ခရီးသြားဝမ္း ပ်က္ျခင္း-ဝမ္းကိုက္ျခင္း၊ Furazolidone 25-50 mg QID
Amebic Dysentery (အမီးဘားပိုး)ေၾကာင့္ ဝမ္းကိုက္ျခင္း၊ Metronidazole 500-750 mg TDS x 10 days or Tinidazole 800 mg TDS x 3-5 days (plus) Diiodohydroxyquin 650 mg TDS x 21 days or Paromomycin 25-30 mg/kg (max. 3 Gm) in divided doses after meal x 7 days
Shigella Dysentery (Shigellosis) (ရွီဂဲလား- ဘက္တီးရီးယား)ေၾကာင့္ ဝမ္းပ်က္ ျခင္း-ဝမ္းကိုက္ျခင္း၊ TMP-SMZ 160/800 mg BD x 7-10 days or Ciprofloxacin 750 mg BD x 7-10 days
Food Poisoning and Traveler’s Diarrhea အစာဆိပ္သင့္ျခင္း၊ ခရီးသြားဝမ္း ပ်က္ျခင္း၊ Clostridium = Vancomycin, Metronidazole; E. Coli and Salmonella = Fluoroquinolone ; Yersinia = Tetracycline or Gentamycin
Giardiasis (ဂိုင္ယာဒီးယား)ပိုးဝင္၍ ဝမ္း ပ်က္ျခင္း၊ Tinidazole 2 Gm stat or Metronidazole 250 mg TDS x 5-7 days or Furazolidone 100 mg QID x 7-10 days or Quinacrine 100 mg TDS PC x 5-7 days or Albendazole 400 mg daily x 5 days
Gastroenteritis (GE) အစာလမ္း(အူ)ေရာင္ျခင္း၊ For Salmonella TMP-SMZ double strength BD x 5 days or Ampicillin 500 mg QID x 5 days or Ciprofloxacin 500 mg BD x 5 days or For E histolytica Metronidazole 750 mg TDS x 5-10 days followed by Diiodohydroxyquin 600 mg TDS x 3 weeks

Tuesday, June 2, 2009

Medical Facts ေဆးပညာအခ်က္အလက္မ်ား

• The average red blood cell lives for 120 days. ေသြးနီဥသည္ ပ်မ္းမွ် ရက္ေပါင္း ၁၂ဝ အသက္ရွင္သည္။

• There are 2.5 trillion (give or take) of red blood cells in your body at any moment. To maintain this number, about two and a half million new ones need to be produced every second by your bone marrow. သင့္ကိုယ္ထဲမွာ ေသြးနီဥေပါင္း ၂႕၅ ထြီလီယန္ရွိသည္။ စကၠန္႔တိုင္းမွာ ေသြးနီဥအသစ္ေပါင္း ၂႕၅ သန္း ထုတ္ေပးေနသည္။

• Considering all the tissues and cells in your body, 25 million new cells are being produced each second. စကၠန္႔တိုင္းမွာ တစ္ရွဴးအသစ္ႏွင့္ ဆဲလ္အသစ္စုစုေပါင္း ၂၅ သန္း ျဖစ္ေပၚေနသည္။
• Our lungs inhale over two million litres of air every day, without even thinking. သင့္အဆုပ္သည္ ေန႔စဥ္ ေလ လီတာ ၂ သန္းကို ရွဴေနသည္။
• Our eyes can distinguish up to one million colour surfaces and take in more information than the largest telescope known to man. သင့္မ်က္စိသည္ အေရာင္ ၁ သန္းကိုခြဲျမင္ႏိုင္ျပီး၊ လူတည္ထြင္ေသာ အေဝးၾကည့္မွန္ေျပာင္းမွန္သမွ် ထက္သာသည္။
• Our blood is on a 60,000-mile journey. သင့္ေသြးသည္ မိုင္ ၆ဝဝဝဝ ခရီးသြားေနျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။
• Our heart beats around 10000 times every day. သင့္ႏွလံုးသည္ တေန႔လ်င္ အၾကိမ္ ၁ဝဝဝဝ ခုန္ေနသည္။
• A red blood cell can circumnavigate your body in under 20 seconds. ေသြးနီဥတခုသည္ သင့္ကိုယ္ခႏၶာထဲ လွည့္လည္ရန္အခ်ိန္ ၂ဝ စကၠန္႔ထက္နည္းသည္။
• Nerve Impulses travel at over 400 km/hr. အာရံုေၾကာ၏တံု႔ျပန္မႈမွာ ၁ နာရီ ၄ဝဝ ကီလိုမီတာႏွဳန္းျမန္သည္။
• A sneeze generates a wind of 166 km/hr, and a cough moves out at 100 km/hr. သင္ႏွာေျချခင္းမွာ ၁ နာရီ ၁၆၆ ကီလိုမီတာႏွဳန္း၊ ေခ်ာင္းဆိုးျခင္းသည္ ၁ နာရီ ၁ဝဝ ကီလိုမီတာႏွဳန္းရွိသည္။

ESL အဂၤလိပ္စာ

ေက်ာင္းစဖြင္ျပီလို႔ေရးေတာ့ ေမးပါတယ္။ ဘာသင္တဲ့ေက်ာင္းလဲ ဆရာတဲ့။  ေက်ာင္းအေၾကာင္း နည္းနည္း နည္းနည္း ေရးထားျပီး။ တေယာက္က ေမးဖူးတယ္။ အခုမွ...